default | grid-3 | grid-2

Post per Page

This is how the world’s first ‘quantum tornadoes’ came to be


In some of the most extreme physical conditions, physicists have created perhaps the smallest storms yet. 


These “quantum tornadoes,” whipped up by quantum researchers from MIT and Harvard, are the latest demonstrations of quantum mechanics—the strange code of laws that governs the universe at its finest, subatomic scales. They’re made from little clouds of sodium atoms, swirling around at temperatures of a fraction of a degree above absolute zero.


There’s a well-established method of deep-freezing atoms to these ultra-cold depths. It starts by trapping atoms—often alkali metals—in a magnetic cage, then shooting a laser at them. It might seem odd to use lasers as a way of cooling, but they produce a beam with only one wavelength of light (in this case yellow, to match sodium’s vaporous hue). When finely tuned, they can slow down the atoms to the point where they no longer produce heat.


What might be left in the end is a Bose-Einstein condensate, a lovably esoteric state of matter where multiple atoms act as one and behave in all sorts of unimaginable quantum ways.


Bose-Einstein condensates might seem weird, and they are—but it’s a sort of weirdness that physicists are used to dealing with. They were first predicted in the 1920s, and scientists succeeded in creating one in the lab in 1995. Those efforts won their scientists the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics.


Since then, the physics world has been abuzz with attempts to push Bose-Einstein condensates to new heights (or new lows, as they were). For instance, physicists have wondered for some time if they could get atoms frozen in this state of matter to rotate. 


Researchers were interested in doing that because it followed in the footsteps of something called a quantum Hall liquid. To make a long story short, under certain quantum conditions and in a magnetic field, a cloud of electrons that normally would push each other away would instead begin mimicking each other’s properties. That would cause them to act a little like water molecules in a fluid, flowing freely.


Electrons are difficult to observe, but physicists thought that rotating a Bose-Einstein condensate in a whirlpool could make atoms behave the same way. That’s appealing, because atoms are much, much bigger than electrons.


This latest research group isn’t the only one that has tried to stir up up a vortex. The challenge, then, comes with trying to get the atoms to spin without breaking the Bose-Einstein condensate. 


“It’s kind of tricky to get, essentially, this rotation under control,” says Peter Schauss, a physicist at the University of Virginia, who wasn’t part of the newest experiment. “It’s easy to rotate it somehow, but it’s hard to rotate it in a way that you don’t heat it up.”

Density profiles and simulations of the magnetically charged sodium crystals show rotational flow. Mukherjee et al. 2022


The Harvard-MIT group took their shot by wrangling a million sodium atoms, cooling them down to 100 billionths of a kelvin above absolute zero, and corralling them inside powerful electromagnets. Then, they spun the condensate around, hoping that they could see a quantum fluid in motion.


It worked—to a point. The atoms formed a thin, needle-like structure that had the properties of the fluid they’d been seeking. The researchers published the results up to here in Science in June 2021.


But they knew they could go further. They decided to keep spinning that needle to see what happened. And that’s when they notices something extraordinary: The needle began to undulate. At first, it began to wrap itself into a corkscrew. Then, the curls broke apart, shattering the needle into a smattering of little quantum blobs, which each began to rotate. Hence, quantum tornadoes.


The researchers compare this to chaos theory. Creating these tornadoes is akin to the famous example of a butterfly’s wings flapping and causing a storm on the other side of the planet, only that the process is playing out on a quantum scale. They published their description of the vortices in Nature earlier this month.


So what comes next? As one might imagine, getting atoms to cooperate at this level is not easy. “It’s still kind of a work in progress to get more stable lasers to … run these experiments efficiently,” says Schauss. “A lot of these experiments are limited by that.”


Another challenge: The tiniest of these quantum tornadoes had 10 atoms each. But some physicists think it’s possible to go even further—to get down to a Bose-Einstein condensate with just one atom. Doing that would really help physicists watch some of the arcane equations of quantum mechanics playing out in the real world (with very sophisticated cameras, at any rate).


While scientists continue to refine their process for crafting these vortices and other shapes of ultra-cold matter, their creations might be applied to technologies like sensors. The MIT-Harvard research was funded by DARPA, which wants to use the spinning condensates to detect subtle underwater movements. But so far, subtlety has not been part of the equation.

References: MIT and Harvard. Originally published on PopSci.

13 comments

  1. Buy, Send and Swap CryptoA guide for enhancing your MetaMask Login experience. metamask login | metamask wallet | metamask extension |

    ReplyDelete
  2. AOL Mail Login My Account Sign in Tips
    my aol mail login
    How to Watch Amazon Prime Video in 2022: A Simple Guide
    amazon prime video login

    ReplyDelete
  3. Customers can trade cryptocurrencies, precious metals, and national currencies with Uphold, a multi-asset digital financial company. This platform supports a variety of cryptocurrencies, including BTC, ETH, LTC, DOGE, and others. You can buy practically all cryptocurrencies, stablecoins, utility tokens, equities, national currencies, and metals with your local money. This exchange is simple to use and contains advanced security measures. With the use of the Uphold Login account, users can exchange digital assets without any issues or concerns.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Sushi Swap is a decentralised exchange based on Ethereum that allows you to swap a wide range of tokens as well as engage in other financial activities. There are no centralised authorities or middlemen in this system. Instead, it completes trades using smart contracts—code that automates processes—and liquidity offered by other users.
    We've covered how to utilise the Phantom wallet after downloading the wallet extension or mobile app in this article. If you're a first-time user, this article will walk you through the process of signing up, logging in, and exchanging tokens through this wallet. This section of the post also includes instructions on how to download and install the wallet extension on your Chrome and Firefox browsers. As a result, we recommend that you have this information ready whenever you decide to begin using the Phantom wallet software.
    Kudelski Security has independently inspected the code of Fantom, making it a secure browser wallet (a top software auditing firm). Fantom wallet also provides encrypted private keys that are saved on your smartphone as a self-custodial wallet, providing you complete control. The Fantom Wallet is one of the numerous services offered by the platform, and it has amassed a sizable following. You'll learn what the Fantom Crypto wallet is and how the platform's crypto token works as you continue reading.

    ReplyDelete
  5. For hassle-free Login or Sign in to AOL mail, go through AOL Mail Login Official website. A part of Verizon Communications dates back to 1997 when it was one of the world’s largest email service providers with 9 million users from all across the world.
    Read more about : www.aol.com login | AOL Mail Sign In | AOL Mail Login | mail.aol.com Login | AOL Sign in AOL Mail Login | www.mail.aol.com | AOL.com Sign In

    ReplyDelete
  6. To summarise, creating a Cryptocom login account and logging in is simple. People who want to sign up can do so easily by following the guidelines listed above on this page. You can also use the above-mentioned tips to assist you in addressing the problems. With the help of this post, you will be able to complete the sign-up and sign-in process without delay if you properly follow the steps. Cryptocom Login | login crypto.com | crypto.com login online |crypto.com wallet | crypto.com defi wallet| crypto.com wallet login | crypto.com wallet address | crypto.com wallet extention | Cryptocom Login | crypto.com login | crypto.com app login |crypto.com login page |crypto.com sign up | https://crypto.com log in | Gemini Login | Gemini Signin | Gemini Login |Gemini Wallet |Gemini Login | Gemini Exchange | Gemini Wallet |Trezor Wallet | trezor.io/start | trezor hardware wallet

    ReplyDelete
  7. The popular self-custodial wallet Phantom can be used to store cryptocurrencies like USDT, USDC, Serum, Raydium, and Solana. Users who have created their wallets can use them on the Phantom mobile app and browser extension. Using a browser or app, you can access your Phantom Wallet easily with the help of its password details. Whenever you set up a new wallet, you are asked to set a password for your wallet. This password can be used to unlock your Phantom wallet. But in case you have lost these password details then you need to find a way to recover your wallet.
    Read more about: AOL Mail LoginTrezor Wallet

    ReplyDelete
  8. Registering for an Uphold login account is facile- all you have to do is keep a few details handy before getting to the official sign-up page and then on getting there, submit your email address, current residential nation, and in-use phone number.

    Among all the crypto wallets that exist, MetaMask login account in your browser is known to be the best in the entire Ethereum blockchain network and has quite the reputation when it comes to storing Ether and other Ethereum-based tokens (like ERC20).

    On the Kraken login platform, you can easily trade between 72 different cryptocurrencies as well as fiat currencies. The Kraken login is a legit and secured platform and the platform provides all of the tools that are in need to purchase and sell the crypto and creates a simple Bitcoin exchange that enables is suitable for beginners.

    ReplyDelete
  9. You gain a better understanding of the service, as well as one of its unique aspects that adds significantly to its uniqueness. To get started, learn how to install and set up the wallet. Crypto.com Exchange |  Crypto.com Exchange Login |  Crypto.com Exchange App With the help of this guide, you can effortlessly set up your MetaMask login account. To avoid future problems, we recommend keeping your MetaMask seed phrase details private. MetaMask Log in | Metamask Sign in

    ReplyDelete
  10. Using this MetaMask wallet, you can control account keys, broadcast transactions, and send and receive feature. Users of the MetaMask Login can connect to the decentralized applications through a web browser
    Kucoin Login
    Uphold Login
    Metamask Login

    ReplyDelete
  11. 1. Learn every necessary specific about the Phantom Wallet that is based on the exclusive Solana blockchain and drips of the best features along with allowing users to stake SOL (the in-house token).

    2. Check out this exclusive read to help you understand what the MetaMask crypto wallet service is along with extensive details on all the MetaMask Log In accounts to improve the overall crypto journey.

    Read more about: MetaMask Extension For ChromeMetaMask Wallet ExtensionMetaMask Chrome Extension

    ReplyDelete
  12. MetaMask extension which then is going to give you a deep insight on how to use this extension and get started with it.To complete the identity verification process on CoinSmart,Robinhood is renowned for its safety parameters, to wit, it doesn’t lean towards being a hot wallet.The MetaMask login accounts that you create will offer you exclusive services and we think it will be an experience of a lifetime.
    metamask extension |
    robinhood wallet |
    coinsmart login |
    metamask login

    ReplyDelete
  13. On the off chance that you're searching for a Visa that procures compensations as digital money, the Gemini Credit Card™* presents to 3% back in any cryptographic money that you can trade on Gemini's foundation continuously Gemini Credit Card.
    The Blockfi Credit Card BlockFi, a New York-based cryptographic money bank, recently added "installments" to its rundown of items and administrations.

    ReplyDelete

Error Page Image

Error Page Image

Oooops.... Could not find it!!!

The page you were looking for, could not be found. You may have typed the address incorrectly or you may have used an outdated link.

Go to Homepage