Every Black Hole Contains Another Universe – Equations Predict

Like part of a cosmic Russian doll, our universe may be perfectly nested inside a black hole that is itself part of a larger universe. In turn, all the black holes found so far in our universe—from the microscopic to the supermassive—may be ultimate doorways into alternate realities.

According to a mind-bending new theory, a black hole is actually a tunnel between universes—a type of wormhole. The matter the black hole attracts doesn’t collapse into a single point, as has been predicted, but rather gushes out a “white hole” at the other end of the black one, the theory goes.

In a paper published in the journal Physics Letters B, Indiana University physicist Nikodem Poplawski presents new mathematical models of the spiraling motion of matter falling into a black hole. His equations suggest such wormholes are viable alternatives to the “space-time singularities” that Albert Einstein predicted to be at the centers of black holes.

According to Einstein’s equations for general relativity, singularities are created whenever matter in a given region gets too dense, as would happen at the ultra-dense heart of a black hole. 

Einstein’s theory suggests singularities take up no space, are infinitely dense, and are infinitely hot—a concept supported by numerous lines of indirect evidence but still so outlandish that many scientists find it hard to accept. If Poplawski is correct, they may no longer have to.

According to the new equations, the matter black holes absorb and seemingly destroy is actually expelled and becomes the building blocks for galaxies, stars, and planets in another reality.

The notion of black holes as wormholes could explain certain mysteries in modern cosmology, Poplawski said. For example, the big bang theory says the universe started as a singularity. But scientists have no satisfying explanation for how such a singularity might have formed in the first place.

If our universe was birthed by a white hole instead of a singularity, Poplawski said, “it would solve this problem of black hole singularities and also the big bang singularity.” Wormholes might also explain gamma ray bursts, the second most powerful explosions in the universe after the big bang. Gamma ray bursts occur at the fringes of the known universe. They appear to be associated with supernovae, or star explosions, in faraway galaxies, but their exact sources are a mystery.

Poplawski proposes that the bursts may be discharges of matter from alternate universes. The matter, he says, might be escaping into our universe through supermassive black holes—wormholes—at the hearts of those galaxies, though it’s not clear how that would be possible.
A supermassive black hole sits inside the galaxy Centaurus A, as seen in a composite picture. IMAGE COURTESY NASA/CXC/CFA/R.KRAFT ET AL., MPIFR/ESO/APEX/A.WEISS ET AL. AND ESO/WFI

“It’s kind of a crazy idea, but who knows?” he said. There is at least one way to test Poplawski’s theory: Some of our universe’s black holes rotate, and if our universe was born inside a similarly revolving black hole, then our universe should have inherited the parent object’s rotation. If future experiments reveal that our universe appears to rotate in a preferred direction, it would be indirect evidence supporting his wormhole theory, Poplawski said.

The wormhole theory may also help explain why certain features of our universe deviate from what theory predicts, according to physicists. 

Based on the standard model of physics, after the big bang the curvature of the universe should have increased over time so that now—13.7 billion years later—we should seem to be sitting on the surface of a closed, spherical universe. But observations show the universe appears flat in all directions. What’s more, data on light from the very early universe show that everything just after the big bang was a fairly uniform temperature.

That would mean that the farthest objects we see on opposite horizons of the universe were once close enough to interact and come to equilibrium, like molecules of gas in a sealed chamber. Again, observations don’t match predictions, because the objects farthest from each other in the known universe are so far apart that the time it would take to travel between them at the speed of light exceeds the age of the universe.

Inflation states that shortly after the universe was created, it experienced a rapid growth spurt during which space itself expanded at faster-than-light speeds. The expansion stretched the universe from a size smaller than an atom to astronomical proportions in a fraction of a second. The universe therefore appears flat, because the sphere we’re sitting on is extremely large from our viewpoint—just as the sphere of Earth seems flat to someone standing in a field. Inflation also explains how objects so far away from each other might have once been close enough to interact.

But—assuming inflation is real—astronomers have always been at pains to explain what caused it. That’s where the new wormhole theory comes in. According to Poplawski, some theories of inflation say the event was caused by “exotic matter,” a theoretical substance that differs from normal matter, in part because it is repelled rather than attracted by gravity. Based on his equations, Poplawski thinks such exotic matter might have been created when some of the first massive stars collapsed and became wormholes.

“There may be some relationship between the exotic matter that forms wormholes and the exotic matter that triggered inflation,” he said.

The new model isn’t the first to propose that other universes exist inside black holes. Damien Easson, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University, has made the speculation in previous studies.

“What is new here is an actual wormhole solution in general relativity that acts as the passage from the exterior black hole to the new interior universe.In our paper, we just speculated that such a solution could exist, but Poplawski has found an actual solution,” said Easson, referring to Poplawski’s equations (who was not involved in the new study). Nevertheless, the idea is still very speculative, Easson said in an email. 

“Is the idea possible? Yes. Is the scenario likely? I have no idea. But it is certainly an interesting possibility. Future work in quantum gravity—the study of gravity at the subatomic level—could refine the equations and potentially support or disprove Poplawski’s theory”, Easson said.

Overall, the wormhole theory is interesting, but not a breakthrough in explaining the origins of our universe, said Andreas Albrecht, a physicist at the University of California, Davis, who was also not involved in the new study. By saying our universe was created by a gush of matter from a parent universe, the theory simply shifts the original creation event into an alternate reality. In other words, it doesn’t explain how the parent universe came to be or why it has the properties it has—properties our universe presumably inherited.

“There’re really some pressing problems we’re trying to solve, and it’s not clear that any of this is offering a way forward with that,” he said.

Still, Albrecht doesn’t find the idea of universe-bridging wormholes any stranger than the idea of black hole singularities, and he cautions against dismissing the new theory just because it sounds a little out there.

“Everything people ask in this business is pretty weird,” he said. “You can’t say the less weird [idea] is going to win, because that’s not the way it’s been, by any means.”

Original article posted on National Geographic.


  1. Σ Energy=constant with constant entropy and is a function of time. Jays parallel universe
    This universe or Jays parallel Universe is made up of

    · white hole or the universe of creation

    · the living universe or matter taking a time variant described change and

    · black hole or the universe of destruction.

    If this is true than the Big Bang never existed, Big Bag is an imagery concept based on the white hole or the universe of creation. The confusion has come across on the Big Bang theory as it fails in its concept by not considering other happenings. Independent of the big bang there is even more creation and destruction taking place within itself without interfering with the beginning, concluding that the entropy is in the increase. Yes only if one stage of the parallel universe is under investigation i.e. considering one mode only of the three, creation, preservation or destruction. The three aspects of creation preservation and destruction is taking place simultaneously as a function of time. Hence the three modes will remain parallel at all times to satisfy these occurrences. Therefore you cannot have one bang of all creation at time equal to zero. Than extend time infinitely with the expectation that in some undefined time ahead it will come to an end.
    Jays parallel universe are back to back with similar parallel Jays universe that has infinite connectivity. This will consists of infinite universes in parallel to each other, where the total energy is not constant with the entropy on the increase. This is when the collective parallel universes are defined in an infinite fabric of space with unstable matter and is not a function of time and referred to as Jays Cosmos. The Big Bang theory has failed to address this reality.

  2. Maybe universes contained in a black hole are made of anti-matter, where all parameters are reversed. That would keep alternate universes fully separated.

  3. Skimmer2k is Ace2k28 May 2018 at 10:14

    And parallel universes causes people to spontaneously combust when their ripples overlap and cross on the spot where a person is. Hey, Albrecht thought worm holes were not to be scoffed at, there is just no proof for or against. Just as the Big Bang, in the first second is unexplainable by any person and their hypotheses. In the rush to be first, to put their own name on something, people make up something that can't be proven realisticly, to explain something they only have a notion of. We don't need to start making up things to explain what we don't understand and call it science. When will we stop adding dimensions? I don't even know what the latest guess is. Where does the worm hole take us this time?

    We are starting to treat science like an actors position. It's all in how you sell your idea, not that you can make the math.

    Can't make the equation work??? Just add two more dimensions and a worm hole and now I just need something else to finish this equation....hmmm... I got It! Exotic matter! Now dark matter, exotic matter, new diminsions and worm holes. All that's left is to make people believe how I tie them all together like a one man band. Like a reporter who makes news, not just reporting it, I believe we have scientists who make-up science not just work to discover things.


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